BIOL CH 17 Reading Review
A single DNA molecule made from two different sources is called ____ DNA.
A(n) _____ _____ is an enzyme capable of cutting DNA at specific sequences.
Which of the following sequences is a palindrome?
How do restriction enzymes work?
By binding to a specific base sequence and then cleaving the DNA backbone in two locations - one on each strand
DNA molecules can be separated based on their size using ____ _____
The development of which technology led to the entire field of biotechnology? recombinant DNA
DNA fragments move faster through a gel polymer than
fragments and will be located closer to the bottom of the gel (the part of the gel where DNA fragments are loaded is the "top" of the gel).
Which of the following is an enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence?
Molecular cloning is a term often used to refer to the process of ______.
producing recombinant DNA
The sequences recognized by restriction enzymes are often __
, meaning that the sequence is identical when read in the opposite direction on the complementary strand? palindromic
How many times does a restriction enzyme cut a double stranded piece of DNA at a given restriction site? 2
Typically, gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments created through restriction based on which of the following? Their size
Reverse transcriptase copies _____ to _____ RNA , DNA
The part of a gel where samples are loaded is often called the "top" of the gel; the opposite end of the gel is then referred to as the "bottom" of the gel. After electrophoresis is complete, where will the smallest DNA fragments be found?
Near the bottom of the gel
A collection of many different recombinant molecules that can be maintained and replicated (when needed) is called a DNA __ library
The process of producing a recombinant DNA molecule is often called molecular ____ cloning
What is the purpose of transformation? To introduce new DNA into a cell
Restriction sites are sequences recognized by restriction enzymes. They are often palindromic meaning that the sequence is ______.
identical when read in the opposite direction on the complementary strand
The polymerase _____ _______is used to quickly produce millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. chain reaction
The enzyme reverse transcriptase was isolated from what type of organism?
In a DNA library, DNA fragments are spliced together with a specialized DNA molecule that allows the storage and propagation of the library. What are those specialized DNA molecules called? cloning vectors
Order the three steps of a PCR cycle from the first to last step, starting at the top.
During ____, a bacterial cell is allowed to uptake foreign DNA. transformation
The purpose of PCR is to ______.
produce millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence
A scientist uses reverse transcriptase to make cDNA from isolate cellular mRNA. After the cDNA is produced, it can be used as a template in a PCR reaction. This is known as ______. reverse transcription PCR
In RT-qPCR, ______.the amount of DNA produced during the PCR step is measured in real time
The third step of a PCR cycle during which a DNA polymerase uses dNTPs to synthesize complementary DNA strands is referred to as which of the following? Synthesis
Next generation sequencing technologies use variations of
____ to produce the DNA that will be sequenced.
DNA _____ is a technology that can identify and distinguish among individuals based on variations in the number of short tandem repeats in their DNA.
Which of the following approaches allows scientists to determine the function of a gene?
Replace a wild-type gene with a mutant copy
Current next-generation sequencing technologies use ______.
variations of PCR to obtain DNA that will be sequenced
During RNA interference genes are usually
The TALE proteins and the CRISPR/Cas9 system are examples of molecular techniques used to perform in vivo DNA editing
Scientists introduce mutations in genes in order to understand their ____
The TALE repeat domain of a TALE protein contains
a middle pair of highly variable amino acids surrounded by conserved amino acids.
Next generation sequencing technologies use variations of ___
to produce the DNA that will be sequenced. PCR
How can a TALE protein be engineered to recognize a specific sequence of DNA? By combining several TALE repeat domains
.A(n) _____organism is one that has genes introduced into it via genetic engineering. transgenic
In RNA interference, ______.
a gene is silenced by using a small double stranded RNA, which allows scientists to determine the gene's function
Because the _____ ______ is nearly universal, a gene from one organism can be placed into a completely different organism and direct the production of the same protein. genetic code
True or false: Several new techniques allow scientists to directly edit the genome of living cells. true
A mouse, which has had one of its genes inactivated, is called a _____ mouse.
TALE proteins contain several sets of a repeating 34 amino acid sequence known as the TALE ____ _______ repeat domain
A scientist wants to create a knockout mouse, in which a gene is knocked out only in brain cells. One approach that can be used by the scientist is ______ inactivation.
A TALEN is a TALE protein fused to an nuclease.
What is the activity of Cre in the Cre-Lox system? It is a recombinase
An organism that carries a gene (or genes) from a different species that was (or were) introduced via genetic engineering, is called ______.
a transgenic organism
The Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens contains genes that cause the formation of a plant _____, or a gall, in infected tissues. tumor
A human gene can be placed into the genome of a bacterium, such as E. coli, and the bacterium will make the encoded protein. How is that possible?
This is possible because of the universal genetic code.
Choose all applications of environmental biotechnology.
Reduce human impact on the environment
Increase the sustainability of resources
Repair environmental damage
Scientists can use a number of techniques to inactivate one or more genes
in an animal, such as a mouse. Such animals are called _______.
____- are fuels produced by harvesting and using biotechnology to process the biomass of plants or algae. biofuels
____ ______allows the creation of knockout animals, in which a gene is knocked out only in cells of a specific tissue or at a specific time during development.
The use of microorganisms to degrade or metabolize (incorporate into microbial biomass) hydrocarbon pollutants is called ________.
The Cre-Lox system was isolated from the bacterial virus P1. In this system, ______.
the Cre enzyme will remove any sequence of DNA flanked by two Lox sequences
Selects all features of the Ti plasmid.
It contains genes that normally cause the formation of a plant tumor.
It contains sequences that can transfer part of the plasmid into plant cells.
It is carried by the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
The use of biological processes to protect and repair the environment from negative human impacts is part of a growing area of biological applications called ______ ______environmental technology
The two main types of liquid biofuels currently produced are _____ and _____
ethanol and biodiesel
Wastewater can be treated in two or three stages. The three stages are, in the order in which they are performed, ______, ____ , and _____treatment.
primary, secondary, advanced
What is the term used for a probe attached to a complementary piece of DNA? Hybridization
What do the first two stages of wastewater treatment involve?
Primary: physical and chemical removal of particulates; Secondary: microbial digestion
Gene _____ , also known as DNA ____ consist of a solid surface, which has been spotted with hundreds to thousands of different DNA sequences.
Scientists can use hybridization to detect a specific sequence using a fluorescently or radioactively labeled probe. In the case of FISH, ______.
the probe is fluorescently labeled and the target is DNA in cells with intact chromosomes
In immunoassays, a molecule is detected by using a specific _____ against it.
Which best describes the purpose of gene therapy?
Defective genes are restored or replaced.
What type of therapy can be used to treat degenerative diseases, or tissue damage, by replacing damaged tissue? stem cell therapy
Choose the different types of sequences that are typically spotted on a gene chip? Short DNA probes
Short DNA sequences produced by PCR or RT-PCR
Immunoassays can be used to detect viruses or bacteria. Place the steps in the process in the correct order, starting at the top. In this case, a virus is detected.